It is not a question of the old Soviet Union and socialism, as functional countries like Estonia have increased their lifespan since the fall of the Soviet Union. As for the heritage of socialism, one of the last socialist dictatorships, Cuba, has an life expectancy on par with the United States.
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Even though there has been positive developmens in the Russian Federation the last years, the life expectancy is still lower than it was at it's height during the Soviet Union. The russian society is highly dysfunctional.
It is understandable why Ukraine looks towards the west, and why Georgia is willing to fight for it's life, literally, to not become part of Russia, russian standard of living and russian healthcare. They think of their children.
It is noteable that the life expectancy started to fall during the Soviet years, three years before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. This might be an interesting indicator of impending collapse.
If you want to live longer, you do like Estonia and look westwards and not towards dysfunctional Russia. Or you just follow the general development of the world.
Data from the World Bank.